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Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

Introduction to nano imprint lithography

Nano imprint (or nanoimprint) lithography, abbreviated as NIL, is a relatively old patterning technology which has gained traction in the last few years.
Nano imprint technology was introduced back in 1996 by Prof. Chou as an alternative fabrication method to traditional optical lithography. … Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

The two main categories of nanoimprinting

While there are many different flavours of nanoimprinting processes, two main ones are:

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

Variants of nano imprint lithography

In addition to the above mentioned thermal and UV-nano imprint lithography, there a big number of variety of processes about nanoimprint that have flourished in recent years, such as laser assisted direct imprint, Sub-10 nm NIL, combined thermal and UV nanoimprint, electrical field-assisted NIL, soft UV-NIL, reverse NIL, Jet and Flash imprint lithography process … Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

Thin film deposition techniques for MEMS processing

One of the fundamental steps in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processing is the deposition of thin films of material with thicknesses ranging from a few nanometers to about 100 micrometers.

Deposition techniques in MEMS processing fall into two categories, the first being techniques that deposit a thin film based on chemical reactions. These include chemical vapor deposition (CVD), epitaxy, thermal oxidation, and electrodeposition. … Continue reading […]

Electrical Energy Through Body Movements

Human Patch to Generate Electrical Energy Through Body Movements

Using the static electricity from human skin to generate enough energy for electronic devices which require little power – a group of researchers from National University of Singapore (NUS) presented this idea during the IEEE MEMS 2015 conference with a small, stamp-sized, flexible generator that can be strapped to the skin, which converts the friction it creates with the skin into electricity.… Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

Novel method to produce green light LEDs using nanowires

Since their first discovery and subsequent improvements, LEDs have always suffered several drawbacks when compared to traditional incandescent light bulbs, namely efficiency loss at high power and lack of reliable efficient solution for some colors in the spectrum, green for instance being one of the less favorable colors for LEDs.

At low power ranges, conventional LEDs based on gallium nitride are quite efficient, but as the power load increases, the efficiency decreases at faster rates therefore making them unsuitable for applications where high illumination power is needed.… Continue reading […]


Photolithography, how does it work?

Photolithography is one of the main parts of the microprocessor manufacturing steps.

There are currently three types of photolithography processes: contact alignment photolithography, proximity alignment photolithography, projection or stepper lithography. Contact alignment lithography is the simplest and involves a light source, a lens, a mask and a substrate positioned on a stand and secured by a chuck.… Continue reading […]


Light Sources Used in Photolithography

Lithography comes from the Greek words lithos, which means ‘stone’, and graphein, which means ‘to write’. It is the process used to print by transferring a mirror image of the pattern from the flat surface. It was developed in 1976 by Alois Senefelder, a German writer and actor, as a cheaper method of printing theatrical publications.… Continue reading […]


Principles of Light Sources for Lithography

It has been proven that the design lenses which images near the diffraction are limited only over narrow bandwidths in wavelength. This is a consequence of the phenomenon of dispersion where index of refraction changes with the wavelength of the light.… Continue reading […]

EUV lithography

Current status of EUV lithography

It is undeniable that extreme ultra-violet lithography has progressed in an extraordinary way in the last 12 months.

Until recently, it was not commonly agreed upon in the lithography industry whether EUV litho would have made it to full production or HVM (high-volume manufacturing) at all.… Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

PVD: Sputtering and Thermal Evaporation

One of the earliest PVD techniques is the thermal evaporation. In thermal evaporation, the metal is heated to its vaporization point. It will then evaporate to the wafer to form the thin film.  However, since evaporated materials tend to be directional, thermal evaporation provides poor coverage. … Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

Molecular beam epitaxy

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), a technique used to form an epitaxial growth, is very often used in semiconductor industry as deposition method of thin films on wafer substrates due to its efficiency, controlled doping characteristic, repeatability, and uniformity. But before immersing to MBE, let’s take a quick look on its mother form the epitaxial deposition. … Continue reading […]

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

PVD (physical vapor deposition) through sputtering

Sputtering is one of the methods by which physical vapor deposition (PVD) is achieved. PVD is a process where a thin film of material is deposited on the surface of a substrate. In sputter deposition, high-energy particles are utilized to remove or eject atoms or molecules from the surface of a target material. The ejected atoms are removed from the target material and deposit on a substrate as a thin film. Sputtering is one of the most common methods used to deposit various thin metallic films on wafer substrates, with gold, platinum, aluminum, and tungsten among the common target materials. … Continue reading […]

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Reaction Mechanisms of Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process used to grow a film of solid material by transporting a chemical precursor in its vapor phase and decomposing it through heat. Typically, a material in its solid form is vaporized and diluted with an organic reactant, which will assist the material’s surface mobility. The chemical combination is transported to the heated surface where it decomposes, leaving the material on the heated surface to migrate to the growing film.… Continue reading […]
Chemical Vapor Deposition

Deposition Rate of Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is the process used to deposit thin film of solid material in various applications like fabrications of novel powder, fiber, preforms of ceramic composites, coatings for corrosion and wear resistance, and synthetic diamond. It is the most widely used technique in IC microfabrication for the oxide and nitride layers of the wafers.… Continue reading […]
Cluster Ions

Common Techniques Used to Form Cluster Ions

Due to their high catalytic activity in solutions as well as their usefulness in preparation of dispersed metal catalysts, clusters, also known as colloids, had been a very important aspect in science since its discovery in 18th century. A cluster is an atom or molecule ensemble whose size is in between a molecule and bulk solid. In IC manufacturing, clusters of electrically charged ions are used to form … Continue reading […]
Cluster Beam Formation

Common Cluster Beam Formation Techniques

Cluster ion beam is a deposition process where high quality films are formed through clusters of electrically charged ions. In IC manufacturing, cluster ion beam is used for film formation of dielectric and other wafer layers at low substrate temperature.… Continue reading […]
Cluster Beam Formation

Laser Sputter Deposition

Laser sputter deposition is a thin film deposition technique for silicon wafers, which uses high-energy pulsed laser radiation to ablate or knock-off target molecules and deposit them as a thin film layer on a wafer substrate. This technique was first… Continue reading […]

Graphene: the basics

With a thickness of only one atom and weighing around 0.77 milligrams per square meter, Graphene is one of the strongest materials known to man, with a breaking strength of 100 to 300 times greater than steel, and one of the most pliable compounds discovered. Firstly produced in 2004, graphene can conduct electricity and heat better than virtually anything else.… Continue reading […]
Porous vacuum chucks

Porous vacuum chucks – types of chucks

Types of porous vacuum chucks Several types of porous vacuum chucks are available today on the market: cylindrical porous chucks, push-up table porous chucks, heater table porous chucks, built-in heater porous chucks among others. Different applications require different types of porous chucks.… Continue reading […]
Vacuum Chucks

An Introduction to Vacuum Chucks

Each step on wafer processing such as mounting the wafer on the probe card during wafer test, or holding it while it is being rotated during photo resist coating, involves wafer handling and transfer. To be able to perform efficiently and to produce high throughput with sophisticated quality, wafer machines use vacuum chucks, which precisely handle large and complicated wafers.… Continue reading […]
power devices

How to sputter indium gallium nitride at low temperatures

According to a new article published on the Applied Physics Letter, an authoritative publication covering sputter and other deposition technologies, a group of researchers from both the University of Tokyo and the CREST technology agency led by Dr. Eiji Nakamura has proven a strong reduction in the temperature used to sputter indium gallium nitride over a glass substrate using a process called pulsed sputter deposition.… Continue reading […]