Introduction to nano imprint lithography
Nano imprint (or nanoimprint) lithography, abbreviated as NIL, is a relatively old patterning technology which has gained traction in the last few years.
Nano imprint technology was introduced back in 1996 by Prof. Chou as an alternative fabrication method to traditional optical lithography. … Continue reading […]
Variants of nano imprint lithography
In addition to the above mentioned thermal and UV-nano imprint lithography, there a big number of variety of processes about nanoimprint that have flourished in recent years, such as laser assisted direct imprint, Sub-10 nm NIL, combined thermal and UV nanoimprint, electrical field-assisted NIL, soft UV-NIL, reverse NIL, Jet and Flash imprint lithography process … Continue reading […]
Thin film deposition techniques for MEMS processing
One of the fundamental steps in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processing is the deposition of thin films of material with thicknesses ranging from a few nanometers to about 100 micrometers.
Deposition techniques in MEMS processing fall into two categories, the first being techniques that deposit a thin film based on chemical reactions. These include chemical vapor deposition (CVD), epitaxy, thermal oxidation, and electrodeposition. … Continue reading […]
Human Patch to Generate Electrical Energy Through Body Movements
Using the static electricity from human skin to generate enough energy for electronic devices which require little power – a group of researchers from National University of Singapore (NUS) presented this idea during the IEEE MEMS 2015 conference with a small, stamp-sized, flexible generator that can be strapped to the skin, which converts the friction it creates with the skin into electricity.… Continue reading […]
Novel method to produce green light LEDs using nanowires
Since their first discovery and subsequent improvements, LEDs have always suffered several drawbacks when compared to traditional incandescent light bulbs, namely efficiency loss at high power and lack of reliable efficient solution for some colors in the spectrum, green for instance being one of the less favorable colors for LEDs.
At low power ranges, conventional LEDs based on gallium nitride are quite efficient, but as the power load increases, the efficiency decreases at faster rates therefore making them unsuitable for applications where high illumination power is needed.… Continue reading […]
Photolithography, how does it work?
Photolithography is one of the main parts of the microprocessor manufacturing steps.
There are currently three types of photolithography processes: contact alignment photolithography, proximity alignment photolithography, projection or stepper lithography. Contact alignment lithography is the simplest and involves a light source, a lens, a mask and a substrate positioned on a stand and secured by a chuck.… Continue reading […]
Light Sources Used in Photolithography
Lithography comes from the Greek words lithos, which means ‘stone’, and graphein, which means ‘to write’. It is the process used to print by transferring a mirror image of the pattern from the flat surface. It was developed in 1976 by Alois Senefelder, a German writer and actor, as a cheaper method of printing theatrical publications.… Continue reading […]
Principles of Light Sources for Lithography
It has been proven that the design lenses which images near the diffraction are limited only over narrow bandwidths in wavelength. This is a consequence of the phenomenon of dispersion where index of refraction changes with the wavelength of the light.… Continue reading […]
Current status of EUV lithography
It is undeniable that extreme ultra-violet lithography has progressed in an extraordinary way in the last 12 months.
Until recently, it was not commonly agreed upon in the lithography industry whether EUV litho would have made it to full production or HVM (high-volume manufacturing) at all.… Continue reading […]
PVD: Sputtering and Thermal Evaporation
One of the earliest PVD techniques is the thermal evaporation. In thermal evaporation, the metal is heated to its vaporization point. It will then evaporate to the wafer to form the thin film. However, since evaporated materials tend to be directional, thermal evaporation provides poor coverage. … Continue reading […]
Molecular beam epitaxy
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), a technique used to form an epitaxial growth, is very often used in semiconductor industry as deposition method of thin films on wafer substrates due to its efficiency, controlled doping characteristic, repeatability, and uniformity. But before immersing to MBE, let’s take a quick look on its mother form the epitaxial deposition. … Continue reading […]
PVD (physical vapor deposition) through sputtering
Sputtering is one of the methods by which physical vapor deposition (PVD) is achieved. PVD is a process where a thin film of material is deposited on the surface of a substrate. In sputter deposition, high-energy particles are utilized to remove or eject atoms or molecules from the surface of a target material. The ejected atoms are removed from the target material and deposit on a substrate as a thin film. Sputtering is one of the most common methods used to deposit various thin metallic films on wafer substrates, with gold, platinum, aluminum, and tungsten among the common target materials. … Continue reading […]